Brazilian Pepper

Schinus terebinthfolius

Brazilian Pepper

Brazilian pepper, photographed at Blazing Star Environmental Preserve, Boca Raton, Palm Beach County, in October 2013.

Before the Burmese python slithered its way into the Everglades, this sprawling tree, the Brazilian pepper,Schinus terebinthfolius, was environmetal public enemy No. 1 in Florida.

It's one of the few invasives where the source and ground zero of the infestation are clearly known. Brazilian pepper is a native of Brazil, as you might guess, Paraguay and Argentina. In the 1890s, the plant was imported into Florida as an ornamental. As the story is told by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a certain Dr. George Stone in 1926 began growing Brazilian pepper at his Punta Gorda home.

Stone was so taken by its beauty, he began giving away seedlings by the hundreds; Brazilian pepper began showing up along city streets. By the 1950s, scientists noticed that the tree was beginning to dominate parts of the state. By 1969, it became evident that Brazilian pepper had the potential to devastate the Everglades.

The threat it still poses cannot be overstated. According to the USDA, Brazilian pepper is "ranked among the most important threats to biodiversity in the South Florida ecosystem." Brazilian pepper "occupies more space in the state than every other invasive species."

It is estimated that Brazilian pepper covers 700,000 acres of Florida real estate. The plant can form massive stands that crowd out native plants, in turn depriving native animals of food. It is believed to put chemicals into the soil that inhibit other plants from growing nearby.

Cut it down and it will regrow from the roots. A single tree can produce seeds by the hundreds of thousands. It puts out berries in fall and winter when there is little else fruiting, making it attractive to wildlife. The fruit, however, can have a deadly "paralyzing" effect on birds and other animals.

The sap contains urushiol, which puts the poison in poison ivy and poison wood. The fruit is used to make pink peppercorns (a related species, Paraguayan pepper, is also used). Brazilian pepper has compound leaves, each with four or six lateral leaflets and a single terminal leaflet (a key identifer). Other names: Brazilian peppertree, Christmas berry, Florida holly and broad-leaf holly.

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U.S. Department of Agriculture Distribution Maps

Published by Wild South Florida, PO Box 7241, Delray Beach, FL 33482.

Photographs by David Sedore. Photographs are property of the publishers and may not be used without permission.